The examination of a patient with lower back pain will focus primarily on the back but should also include:

  • Neurological Examination
  • Dermatomes
  • Sacral Dermatomes (To assesses for herniation at the L4-S1 nerve roots)
  • Nerve Roots with Knee Jerk and Ankle Jerk Tendon Reflexes
  • Ability to straight leg raise
  • Observations: heart rate, blood pressure, pulse oximetry and temperature