The Shell Model

This model considers the role of different factors on the delivery of safe patient care [6].

S = Software

Consists of all non-physical resources, required for the running of the organisation, e.g. organisational policies and rules, procedures and manuals.

H = Hardware

Equipment, tools, workspace, buildings and other physical resources without human elements in healthcare.

E = Environment

Includes not only the factors affecting the site where people work such as climate, temperature, vibration and noise, but also socio-political and economic factors.

L = Liveware (group)

The term liveware refers to the relationships between colleagues.

L = Liveware (individual)

What effect are the other elements having on individual factors like teamwork, communication, leadership and culture.