Signs and Symptoms

The following are symptoms and signs of abdominal primary blast injury.


  • Abdominal pain
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Haematemesis
  • Malaena


  • Haemodynamic instability
  • Tenderness
  • Peritonism
  • Free gas on radiological examination

These may be evident at initial presentation, but may be delayed by up to 7 days if perforation occurs secondary to mesenteric infarction or ischaemia [3]