Differential Diagnosis of CPO

The differential diagnosis of CPO is shown in Table 1.

Table 1: Differential diagnosis of CPO
Sign CPO COPD Pneumonia PE
Heart rate ↑↑ ↑↑ ↑↑
Blood pressure
O2 saturations ↓↓
Chest signs Bilateral crepitations Diffuse wheeze Focal crepitations Clear


Skin Cold, pale and clammy Dry and warm Flushed and warm Dry
Heart sounds Murmurs, 3rd/4th heart sounds Normal Normal Normal