Physical Examination

A thorough physical examination may reveal signs of cardiac dysfunction, or in severe cases, cardiac failure or cardiogenic shock.

The table below summarises the symptoms and physical signs associated with myocarditis of differing aetiologies.

Aetiology Clinical symptoms Physical signs
Features of viral illness Myalgia, sore throat, diarrhoea, vomiting Fever, tachycardia
Myopericarditis Chest pain, breathlessness Pericardial rub, signs of tamponade
Myocardial dysfunction Chest pain, breathlessness, collapse, orthopnea, oedema Tachypnoea, tachycardia, gallop rhythm, raised JVP, pulmonary oedema, low blood pressure and cardiogenic shock
Arrhythmias Palpitations, breathlessness, syncope Abnormal pulse rate, rhythm, signs of cardiac failure