Key Treatment Interventions in the ED

The following table outlines the key treatment interventions in the ED for patients with suspected acute myocarditis.

Management goal Intervention
Airway protection
  • Endotracheal intubation may be required in some patients
Ensure adequate oxygenation
  • Supplemental oxygen therapy
  • Non-invasive ventilation or CPAP
  • Mechanical ventilatory support
Maintenance of adequate perfusion
  • Invasive monitoring
  • Cautious fluid bolus
  • Inotropic and vasopressor support
Treatment of pulmonary oedema
  • Diuretics
  • Nitrates
  • ACE inhibitors
  • CPAP
Control of arrhythmias
  • Antiarrhythmics
  • Correction of electrolyte disturbances
Reduce metabolic demands
  • Bed rest
  • Fever reduction
  • Blood sugar control
  • Treat intercurrent infection
  • Correct anaemia


Treatment of myocarditis is largely supportive and this may involve aggressive cardiorespiratory resuscitation in the ED.