Clinical Features

Clinical features also occur through two mechanisms:

  • Both a low flow through a stenosed vessel and intimal damage can cause thrombus formation. This leads to embolic neurological sequelae
  • The haematoma, with or without aneurysm formation, can cause symptoms from compression of adjacent structures

The development of a cervical artery dissection is usually associated with either trauma or connective tissue disease and most commonly occurs between 35-45 years of age.

The trauma involved can be trivial and there have been reports of cases following sneezing and yoga.

Risk factors include:
  • Trauma
  • Respiratory tract infection
  • Fibromuscular dysplasia
  • Cystic medial necrosis
  • Marfan syndrome
  • Ehlers-Danlos syndrome