Clinical Assessment and Risk Stratification

Assessment and management of the patient must follow an ABCDE approach and involve four key steps that should ideally occur concurrently:

  1. Recognition of the degree of physiological compromise
  2. Identification of the cause
  3. Correction of the physiological deficit
  4. Treatment of the underlying cause

A focussed history must be obtained and examination performed concurrently with resuscitation. Some specific clinical findings merit further discussion.