What Views Are Required?

A good Sub xyphoid (SX) view must be obtained. This requires increasing the machine depth to around 20cm, and holding the transducer almost flat against the indented epigastrium. Remember that the heart is an anterior structure and too deep at probe angulation is a common mistake.

Besides this, for the purposes of ELS, one other view should be obtained. This is usually the parasternal long axis view (PLAX). The machine depth settings should be around 14-16cm for this.

Alternatively the parasternal short axis view (PSAX) can be obtained, using similar depth settings.

An apical view is an alternative second view, but is possibly more difficult in a supine patient and often requires rotating the patient onto their left side by 45 degrees.

Finally the IVC must be visualized for collapse as it is an ultrasonic CVP.