The risk factors for a fractured NOF can simplistically be divided into:

  • Falls
  • Osteoporosis

Note however that there are some things, such as alcohol or immobility, which may be risk factors for both.

Osteoporosis can be classified as:

  • Type 1 (post menopausal)
  • Type 2 (senile) age-related osteoporosis which occurs in males and females
  • Idiopathic
  • Endocrine: e.g. Cushing’s syndrome, thyrotoxicosis, hypogonadism, hyperparathyroidism
  • Gastrointestinal e.g. malabsorption
  • Drugs e.g. corticosteroids, long-term heparin