The table lists good and poor prognostic features. However, no prognostic features are entirely predictive and weeks may pass before the demarcation appears between viable and non-viable tissues.

Long-term sequelae of frostbite may include intermittent pain and numbness, ulceration, hyperhydrosis or anhydrosis.

The patient may also experience vasomotor problems, osteoporosis, muscle atrophy and post-amputation phantom limb pain [10].

Learning bite

The prognosis of frostbite is usually uncertain at the time of initial presentation in the ED.