Author: Rajesh Chatha, Ben Clarke, J Vellupilai, Philippa Serebriakoff / Editor: Rajesh Chatha, Robert Hirst / Codes: SLO10 / Published: 24/06/2021

At TERN Education we are keen to help you learn how to critically evaluate the evidence base behind your practice. In order to do this, we are producing monthly virtual journal club modules on RCEMLearning. These give you the opportunity to critically consider your practice and earn a certificate which demonstrates the new curricular requirement to be engaged in critical appraisal activity. When you finish, click the link to the forum to discuss this month’s paper with colleagues around the country.

Interested in writing a module? We are looking to recruit regional teams to write future modules. Email us at [email protected].


  1. O’Driscoll BR, Howard LS, Earis J, Mak V. BTS guideline for oxygen use in adults in healthcare and emergency settings. Thorax 2017; 72 (Suppl 1): ii1-ii90. doi:10.1136/thoraxjnl-2016-209729
  2. Roberts CM, Stone RA, Buckingham RJ, Pursey NA, Lowe D, National Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Resources and Outcomes Project Implementation Group. Acidosis, non-invasive ventilation and mortality in hospitalised COPD exacerbations. Thorax 2011; 66(1): 43-8. doi: 10.1136/thx.2010.153114.
  3. Kopsaftis Z, Carson-Chahoud KV, Austin MA, Wood-Baker R. Oxygen therapy in the pre-hospital setting for acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2020, Issue 1. Art. No.: CD005534. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD005534.pub3
  4. Austin MA, Wills KE, Blizzard L, Walters EH, Wood-Baker R. Effect of high flow oxygen on mortality in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients in prehospital setting: randomised controlled trial. BMJ 2010; 341: c5462. doi:10.1136/bmj.c5462
  5. Young PJ, Bailey M, Bellomo R, Bernard S, Bray J, Jakkula M et al., Conservative or liberal oxygen therapy in adults after cardiac arrest: An individual-level patient data meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Resuscitation 2020; 157: 15-22. doi:10.1016/j.resuscitation.2020.09.036
  6. Wang C, Chang W, Huang C, Tsai M, Yu P, Wang A et al., The effect of hyperoxia on survival following adult cardiac arrest: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. Resuscitation 2014; vol. 85(9): 1142-8. doi:10.1016/j.resuscitation.2014.05.021
  7. Stub D, Smith K, Bernard S, Nehme Z, Stephneson M, Bray J et al., Air Versus Oxygen in ST-Segment-Elevation Myocardial Infarction. Circulation 2015; 131(24): 2143-50. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.114.014494
  8. Hofmann R, James S, Jernberg T, Lindahl B, Erlinge D, Witt N et al., Oxygen Therapy in Suspected Acute Myocardial Infarction. NEJM 2017; 377(13): 1240-1249. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1706222
  9. Stewart R, Jones P, Dicker B, Jiang Y, Smith T, Swain A et al., High flow oxygen and risk of mortality in patients with a suspected acute coronary syndrome: pragmatic, cluster randomised, crossover trialBMJ 2021; 372: n355. doi:10.1136/bmj.n355
  10. Bland JM, Altman DG. The odds ratio. BMJ 2000; 320: 1468.  doi:10.1136/bmj.320.7247.1468
  11. Sedgwick P. Poisson regression. BMJ 2014; 349: g6150. doi:10.1136/bmj.g6150
  12. Yusuf S, Wittes J, Probstfield J, Tyroler HA. Analysis and interpretation of treatment effects in subgroups of patients in randomized clinical trials. JAMA 1991; 266(1): 93-8. PMID: 2046134.
  13. Wallach JD, Sullivan PG, Trepanowski JF, Sainani KL, Steyerberg EW, Ioannidis JP. Evaluation of Evidence of Statistical Support and Corroboration of Subgroup Claims in Randomized Clinical Trials. JAMA Intern Med. 2017; 177(4): 554-560. doi: 10.1001/jamainternmed.2016.9125
  14. Bland, JM, Altman DG. Statistics notes. The odds ratio. BMJ 2000; 320(7247): 1468. doi:10.1136/bmj.320.7247.1468
  15. Rich JT, Neely JG, Paniello RC, Voelker CC, Nussenbaum B, Wang EW. A practical guide to understanding Kaplan-Meier curves. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2010; 143(3): 331-336. doi:10.1016/j.otohns.2010.05.007
  16. Spruance SL, Reid JE, Grace M, Samore M. Hazard ratio in clinical trials. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2004; 48(8): 2787-2792. doi:10.1128/AAC.48.8.2787-2792.2004