Basic Science and Pathophysiology

Anticoagulants inhibit the clotting cascade and can be categorised into the following:

  • Vitamin K antagonists (VKA) inhibit the synthesis of Vitamin K dependant clotting factors II, VII, IX, X, Protein C and S:
    • Coumarins (warfarin)
  • Indirect thrombin inhibitors:
    • Heparin (unfractionated heparin-UFH)
    • Low molecular weight heparin (LMWH):
      • Dalteparin
      • Tinzaparin
      • Enoxaparin
    • Factor Xa inhibitors:
      • Fondaparinux
      • Rivaroxaban
  • Direct thrombin inhibitors bind directly to thrombin and block its interaction with its substrates.
    • Dabigatran
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