Other Presentations Associated With MS

Other presentations associated with MS include:

Transverse myelitis

Rarely, patients may present with a complete, or incomplete, loss of motor function below a certain segment of the spinal cord i.e. an acute transverse myelitis.

This motor deficit is often accompanied by sensory, autonomic, reflex, and sphincter disturbances.

The differential diagnosis includes mechanical compression of the spinal cord and cauda equina syndrome secondary to tumour or prolapsed disc [7]. Urgent MRI imaging is essential to identify which patients may benefit from emergency surgical decompression.

Neuromyelitis optica

This a rare disorder characterised by Optic neuritis and Acute myelitis that is often misdiagnosed as MS. It is diagnosed based on specific guidelines by neurologists.

It is an antibody-meditated disease involving demyelination of the optic nerve and spinal cord which responds to immunosuppressive treatments. It has a high mortality rate if not diagnosed and treated appropriately.

Learning bite

A patient presenting with an episode of isolated optic neuritis, should be confirmed by an ophthalmologist, and referred to a consultant neurologist for further assessment10.

Acute disseminated encephalitis

Acute disseminated encephalitis is pathophysiologically and radiographically identical to MS.

It is characterised by acute onset of motor, sensory, cerebellar, and cranial nerve dysfunction with encephalopathy, progressing to coma and eventual death in 30% of such cases.