Gastro-oesophageal reflux: Basic science and pathophysiology

  • Vomiting and feeding difficulties account for up to 36% of neonates presenting to the ED1
  • Visible regurgitation of feeds:2
    • Is a common physiological event (affects at least 40% of infants)
    • Usually begins before 8 weeks of age
    • May be frequent (5% have six or more episodes per day)
    • Does not usually require investigation or treatment
    • Is also known as gastro-oesophageal reflux (GOR)
  • Serious pathology is unlikely in well, hydrated infants without concerning features in the history or examination.3