Other factors linked to the development of PUD include:

  • Neoplastic lesions – primary or secondary
  • Autoimmune diseases – e.g. vasculitis, sarcoidosis and Crohn’s disease
  • Viral infections – especially if immunocompromised
  • Radiation damage
  • Physiological Stress associated with trauma and critical illness
  • Psychological Stress – accommodation in a refugee shelter was a risk factor peptic ulcer disease after a large scale disaster [30]

Learning bite

At least 20% of cases are not linked to H. Pylori, aspirin or NSAID use [28].