Postmenopausal bleeding: Bleeding that occurs over one year after the last menstrual period.

Menopause: Permanent cessation of menstrual periods. Menopause is clinically diagnosed after twelve months of amenorrhoea. In Western countries, menopause occurs at a median age of 51.4 years10.

Menopause can be:

  • Physiological
  • Medical menopause – induced by medications to suppress ovarian function
  • Surgical menopause – following ovarian resection in a patient who has not reached physiological menopause

Perimenopause: The transition period between the reproductive years and the menopause. Perimenopause typically starts four years before the menopause and is often marked by irregular periods, hormone imbalances, and clinical symptoms such as insomnia, vaginal dryness and hot flushes11, 12.

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