Other Presentations

Large stones in the renal pelvis may present with haematuria, infection or decreased renal function rather than acute renal colic. These may be ‘staghorn shaped’ and usually consist of struvite or cystine.

Pyuria may be evident, but this is usually a result of ureteral irritation rather than a sign of infection.

Imaging must be used in all cases that attend the ED and while blood and urine samples should be taken, the findings are often non specific.