Patients with a potassium level over 12 mmol/L or severe traumatic injuries will not benefit from bypass. Similarly, patients with pre-existing cardiopulmonary, renal or neurological disorders require careful selection as they have a poorer prognosis [4,5].

In primary hypothermic cardiac arrest, death should not be confirmed until:

  • The patient has been re-warmed


  • Other unsurvivable injuries have been identified


  • Re-warming has failed despite all available measures.