Ischaemic stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA) are part of a patho-physiological continuum of cerebrovascular disease.

Strokes and TIAs result from one of three main aetiologies:

  • Large artery atherothromboembolism (intracranial/extracranial)
  • Small vessel disease
  • Embolism from a cardiac source

Other causes include:

  • Carotid or vertebral artery dissection
  • Hypercoagulable states
  • Sickle cell disease
  • ‘Undetermined’ aetiology

Further details on carotid or vertebral artery dissection are presented later in this session, and also in the following session:

  • Cervical Artery Dissection