Basic Science and Pathophysiology

In peptic ulcer disease, haemorrhage occurs from erosion to a blood vessel at the ulcer base.

In patients with liver disease, increased portal venous pressure results in greater blood flow through collateral vessels (particularly in the distal oesophagus). These vessels can become dilated and tortuous, making them prone to bleeding.

The anatomical locations of the causes of upper GI bleeds are shown in the image below

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