Cardiac Murmurs: Classification and Clinical Approach

A murmur is described in terms of:

  • Where it is maximally heard
  • Where it radiates to
  • When in the cardiac cycle it comes: systolic, diastolic or continuous
  • The pitch: high, low or medium
  • The intensity: intensity gives an indication of severity: systolic murmurs of Grade 3 or more are usually haemodynamically significant

Clinical classification of systolic murmurs

ED-based approach to the evaluation of a murmur