Hypercalcaemia in Malignancy - Reference

…or normal in primary hyperparathyroidism and hypercalcaemia of malignancy. Phosphate levels are elevated in hypercalcaemia secondary to vitamin D–related disorders or thyrotoxicosis. Serum chloride levels usually are higher than 102 mEq/L in hyperparathyroidism and less than this value in other forms of hypercalcaemia. If laboratory evidence of primary hyperparathyroidism is…

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Acute Coronary Syndromes: Pathophysiology and Presentation - Learning Session

…Comparison of primary and facilitated percutaneous coronary interventions for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction: quantitative review of randomised trials. Lancet2006;367:579-88. Bonnefoy E, Lapostolle F, Leizorovicz A et al. Primary angioplasty versus prehospital fibrinolysis in acute myocardial infarction: a randomised study. Lancet 2002;360:825-29. Armstrong PW; WE

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Management of STEMI and its Complications - Reference

…trials. J hypertens, 11(Suppl 4), pp. S61-73. Keeley E, Boura J, Grines C.(2003) Primary angioplasty versus intravenous thrombolytic therapy for acute myocardial infarction: a quantitative review of 23 randomised trials. Lancet, 361 pp. 13-20. Bonnefoy E, Lapostolle F, Leizorovicz A et al. (2002) Primary angioplasty versus prehospital fibrinolysis in acute…

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October 2016 New in EM - Podcast

…CRP < 20 mg/L” The end result is NO intervention- so really, this “low risk” group were managed with no antibiotics, LP or admission. Primary outcome The primary outcome was the proportion of infants managed as outpatients who returned to the ED due to a clinical deterioration. The secondary outcome…

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Acute Coronary Syndromes - Reference

…J, Grines C. Comparison of primary and facilitated percutaneous coronary interventions for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction: quantitative review of randomised trials. Lancet2006;367:579-88. Bonnefoy E, Lapostolle F, Leizorovicz A et al. Primary angioplasty versus prehospital fibrinolysis in acute myocardial infarction: a randomised study. Lancet 2002;360:825-29. Armstrong PW; WEST

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Stroke in the ED - Reference

…focal part of the brain causing loss of neurological function or death. Approximately 85% of strokes are due to cerebral infarction (ischaemic stroke), 10% due to primary haemorrhage and 5% due to subarachnoid haemorrhage [1]. This session deals with ischaemic stroke. Learning Bite 85% of strokes are due to ischaemia…

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TERN Top papers July 2021 - TERN

…with a primary outcome of a ≥50% drop in the pain score at 30 minutes. They also looked at the proportion of patients achieving a >2-point reduction on the NRS at multiple time points. Importantly, unlike much of the previous evidence relating to methoxyflurane, pain was not limited to that…

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Arterial Blood Gas Analysis - Reference

…and COPD (poor gas exchange with retention of CO2) Vomiting (loss of H+) and COPD To distinguish between compensated primary metabolic alkalosis or respiratory acidosis, and a primary mixed disorder, the clinical picture must be considered. Also, if the HCO3– is greater than 45 mmol/l, it is much more likely…

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September 2016: New in EM - Podcast

…single syringe mix of 10mls (100mg) and 10mls ketamine (100mg) total 20mls opaque white liquid titrated to effect Comparison 20mls of propofol (200mg) titrated to effect Primary outcome Primary outcome was an occurrence of a respiratory adverse event Summary of results No significant difference in composite primary outcome. Secondary outcome…

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November 2016 New in EM - Podcast

…the physician ultimately. The usual practice in USA is often admission for further provocative testing. Primary outcome cardiac testing within 30 days Summary of results 70% in the usual care and 57% in the heart pathway got objective tetsing (this was stat significant and their primary outcome) 40% discharge v…

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